Gateshead Township, extending west to Winlaton andBlaydonand this toStoryand Pelawis is home to more than 200,000 people. The district, located on the south side of the Tyne, is widely famous for being home to Gateshead Stadium, BALTIC, Sage, the MetroCentre and, of course, theangel of the north.
Gateshead Borough is quite a diverse area, dominated by rolling open countryside and river valleys to the south and west, while the heart of downtown Gateshead is a highly built-up city where busy roads feed the famous collection of bridges that cross Tyne to Newcastle.
Gateshead Millennium Bridge
Along the river, Gateshead Quays is home to the beautiful Sage, BALTIC and elegant Gateshead Millennium Bridge, complementing the view of thenewcastle pieron the opposite bank of the river.
The beautiful Gateshead Millennium Bridge is a pedestrian bridge linking Newcastle and Gateshead Quays and has played an important role in the regeneration of Gateshead's former industrial waterfront. As the first Tyne Bridge built solely for recreational purposes, it provides convenient access from Newcastle to Sage Gateshead and BALTIC, masterpieces of Gateshead's riverside renaissance.
This steel bridge was opened to the public in 2001 and consists of two arches. One lies horizontal, providing a crossing platform for pedestrians and cyclists to reach the opposite bank. It is joined at ninety degrees by the graceful vertical arc that stretches over the Tyne at 345 feet.
The bridge is sometimes called the twinkle-eye or blink-eye bridge due to its ability to tilt forty degrees, allowing ships to pass under it with a sailing distance of 82 feet. This can be accomplished in four and a half minutes.
Wilkinson Eyre Architects were given the task of building the bridge after winning a competition for its design in 1995. It has won some notable awards. In 2002 Wilkinson Eyre received the Stirling Prize from the Royal Institute of British Architects and construction engineers Gifford and Partners received the IStructE Supreme Award in 2003. In 2005 he received the Outstanding Structure Award from the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering.
Bounded by Oakwellgate and Hillgate, lanes that were once the main medieval streets of Gateshead, we find the magnificent Sage Gateshead, a music and conference center on the banks of the Tyne. It is one of the most unusual, beautiful and remarkable modern buildings in Britain. Opened in 2004, it is built of curved stainless steel panels with three huge glass windows facing the river. The entire effect is a graceful billowing mass that reflects the sky and complements thepuente tyneand Millennium Bridge.
Sage Gateshead is the home and venue of the Northern Sinfonia Orchestra and Folkworks, which promote and develop the region's traditional music. The venue has also been used for jazz, country, indie, electronic and acoustic sessions.
The construction of Sage Gateshead (sponsored by the Newcastle-based software company Sage) was a collaboration of different areas of expertise. The designers were the architects Foster and Partners who worked with the structural engineers Mott Macdonald. The roof was designed by Buro Happold, while Arup designed the acoustics and other aspects of the building.
There are three performance areas, the largest with capacity for 1,700 people. Amazingly, its ceiling can be lowered and raised to maximize acoustic results or "sound profile" depending on the type of performer or the number of people in the auditorium. Other elements of the remaining building include rehearsal spaces, bars, cafeteria and a function room. It is one of the most amazing modern buildings in Britain.
The fabulous BALTIC, a contemporary art gallery is located a few meters from Sage Gateshead and is another of the star attractions of the town. Originally the Baltic Flour Mill, its foundations and design date back to the 1930s, but construction was delayed by war and Joseph Rank Ltd did not open the building until 1950. Like several other Rank mills, it was named after a sea foreign. Built on the site of Hawks' Gateshead iron works (1858-1890), the mill included a warehouse (now demolished) which stored 5,000 tons of grain.
The mill could ship 240 tons of grain per hour and ships from around the world delivered grain to the adjoining 138-foot-tall silo that had a capacity of 22,000 tons. Grain was suctioned from the ships and delivered via a conveyor below the dock to a corner inside the silo.
Rank closed the mill in 1981 and in 1994 architect Dominic Williams won a competition to convert the silo building into an art gallery. The impressive result is BALTIC, the contemporary art center that opened in 2002 with its ever-changing program of contemporary exhibitions.
More than 200 artists from different parts of the world have shown their work here. In 2011, BALTIC had the great honor of hosting the Turner Prize. It was the first time the event had been held outside the Tate in London or Liverpool since the prize's inception in 1984.
Site of the Hawks works
For much of the 19th century Gateshead was primarily associated with engineering, particularly through the firm of Hawks, Crawshay and Sons. Known locally as 'Haaks', the company began on the banks of the Tyne, in the vicinity now occupied by the Baltic Centre. This newly settled industrial area was named 'New Greenwich' after company founder William Hawks, who established business here in 1748.
Hawks had previously worked as a senior blacksmith for the Tyneside iron manufacturer Sir Ambrose Crowley, owner of the facility atswallow, Winlaton yequipment. Hawks works initially made iron products used by local industries and the military. In the early 19th century, Hawks production included anchors and chains for the local maritime trade and weapons for the Napoleonic wars.
Around 800 men were employed at the Hawks works in the late 1830s, and although wages were not especially high, the company provided houses for its workers, as well as schools for the workers' children. As the century progressed, the company became more ambitious with its output, including building bridges, but it faced increasing competition from specialist Tyneside firms and finally closed in September 1889.
Geordie Ridley (1835-1864), Gateshead-born composer and music hall performer who wrote 'The Blaydon Raceshas a strong connection to this area of the Gateshead River. From the age of eight, Ridley worked at Gateshead's Oakwellgate Pit and then at Hawks Crawshay, where a serious injury forced him to retire and pursue an acting career. His injuries eventually took their toll when he died, aged just 30, at his Gateshead home in 1864.
Hillgate to Hellgate
Below, between the bridges at Gateshead's Quay, is the old medieval street of Hillgate, now nothing more than a riverside road. Sadly, like Pipewellgate, another ancient medieval neighbor to the west, it has nothing to show for its age. To learn more about Gateshead in medieval times, see the section onEl origen de Gateshead.
Hillgate stretches along the river from theMoving bridgeand then under the Tyne Bridge. Once lined with houses overlooking the Tyne, the main features today are St Mary's Church and Sage Gateshead towering over its course.
In 1857, Fordyce's 'History of Durham' described the street as "recently overcrowded with houses reaching level after level to the plateau on which the church stands". When Daniel Defoe, author ofFlanders PieryRobinson CrusoeHe lived in Gateshead about 1706-1710, lodging at Hillgate. A plaque near the Sage commemorates Defoe's residence.
In medieval times Hillgate was called Hellgate and on 6 October 1854 it certainly lived up to this earlier name when a massive explosion at a Hillgate factory containing a dangerous mixture of materials sparked the Great Fire of Newcastle and Gateshead.
On a wall near the church of Santa Maria, two "fire stones" can be seen. One is enrolled:
“These stones with burning wood and red-hot iron bars were thrown onto the roof and into the church by the explosion at Hillgate on October 6, 1854. Weight of the largest about 6 CWT.”
Great Fire of Newcastle and Gateshead
Despite the initial development of coal mining in the Gateshead area, Gateshead appears to have remained a rather small place which in the 18th century was little more than a large village, known for "oak trees and windmills".
As late as 1834, the Mckenzies' History of Durham records that the Windmill Hills near the town was dotted with corn mills which, viewed from a distance, imparted a vivid and picturesque effect to the landscape. A Tyneside song further proclaims:
The pier for sailors,
Castle Garth for tailors,
The Gateshead Hills for Millers,
Keelers North Shore.
This seemingly idyllic rural situation was to change as industrialization led to a continuous increase in Gateshead's population rising from 8,597 to 108,024 between 1801 and 1901. As a result, the town's waterfront area became increasingly overcrowded and this was a contributing factor to the great 19th century Tyneside disaster which affected the neighboringNewcastlealso.
At one o'clock on the morning of October 6, 1854, a fire was discovered near the River Tyne in a worsted factory at Hillgate, Gateshead. The fire quickly got out of control and spread to an adjacent reservoir containing huge deposits of salt, iron, lead, manganese, nitrate soda, guano, arsenic, copper, naphtha, and 3,000 tons of sulfur.
Huge blue flames began to shoot out of the building as it caught fire and huge crowds began to gather in both Gateshead and Newcastle to watch the spectacle. The boats on the River Tyne were said to be packed with spectators.
Around quarter past three in the morning, disaster struck; the entire building suddenly exploded, sending flaming debris in all directions, the sight of which was described by onlookers as "flying fish". The explosion was said to be heard in the distance inBerwick over Tweedand houses were damaged as far as the Tyne asSouth Shields. The glow of the fire could be seen in North Yorkshire, many miles to the south.
The flying debris caused ships and boats in the middle of the River Tyne to catch fire, but worse still, it started a second major fire on the north bank of the river, eventually destroying many of the medieval buildings on Newcastle quayside. . Hundreds of people were left homeless by the event which was known for many years as "The Great Fire of Newcastle and Gateshead".
The great fire destroyed almost all of the few historic buildings that existed in Gateshead, although many were in disrepair as a home to overcrowded misery.
Salt Meadows y East Gateshead
Saltmeadows is the area along the river from the Millennium Bridge and BALTIC to the east of central Gateshead on the banks of the Tyne. Salt was probably collected here in medieval times. It was the first area of Gateshead to be annexed by Newcastle after Cuthbert Tunstall, the Bishop of Durham, 'sold' it to the Newcastle Corporation in 1555 for 44s per year on a lease that would run for 450 years - until 2004!
In the 19th century this became valuable riverside industrial land which Newcastle was able to lease and reap the rewards. During that century, the area was home to a chemical works, ironworks, soapworks, brickworks, shipyard, glassworks, and the coal mines of the Tyne Main Colliery. Industrial developments led to housing growth in Saltmeadows and an area known as New Gateshead. Newcastle sold most of Saltmeadows to Gateshead before the Second World War.
Farther east still, the industry continued through the riparian area called East Gateshead towards Friars Goose. Today East Gateshead is best known as the home of the 11,800 seat Gateshead International Stadium, the heart of athletics in the North East of England. The stadium opened in August 1955.
Town Hall and Plaza de la Trinidad
Gateshead's former focus of civic activity was the Old Town Hall (above) which stands near the center of town on West Street, just west of the High Street and looking south towards the bridges across the Tyne. It was built in 1868 by the architect John Johnstone, who also built the Newcastle Town Hall (demolished) which stood in St Nicholas Square, near St Nicholas Cathedral, across the river. Gateshead's Old Town Hall is now a venue for lectures, performances and concerts, complementing the facilities at the Sage. An old Victorian bank and library are nearby neighbors built in a similar style.
As in Newcastle, Gateshead Town Hall's civic role as the seat of the city council was replaced by a modern Civic Centre. The Gateshead Civic Center is located along the road south of the Old Town Hall between West Street and Prince Consort Road. It is a red brick building built by the Director of Architecture of the Township D.W Robson between 1978 and 1987.
Between the old town hall and the civic center is trendy Trinity Square, a newly developed central focal point for the city of Gateshead. It is on the west side of the High Street and consists of a retail and entertainment development with shops, restaurants and a cinema.
A previous shopping center from the 1960s was demolished in 2009. It included the rather grim multi-storey car park that was known as a major Gateshead landmark and was featured in the 1971 gangster film.get carter. The new animated development is a far cry from those days.
Shipley art gallery
South of Trinity Square we enter the Shipcote area where Gateshead High Street and West Street become Durham Road and Old Durham Road respectively. Heading south and running parallel to each other, the two highways are joined in this area by a third major thoroughfare: Prince Consort Road. Here we find the Shipley Art Gallery, a Grade 2 listed Edwardian building that owes its origins to the wealthy Gateshead-born solicitor and art collector Joseph Shipley (1822-1909), whose legacy laid the foundation of the gallery.
Shipley began collecting paintings when he was sixteen, and the bequest included all of his 2,500 paintings and £30,000 for the construction of a gallery. However, the bequest from him was made to the city of Newcastle, which was already home to the Laing Gallery. His request was for a new gallery to be built and he specifically requested that his paintings not go to the Laing. Newcastle decided that he could not agree to these terms, so the bequest was offered to Gateshead council.
Due to limited space, Gateshead only bought 504 of the best images, with the rest being sold. Since then, the Shipley Gallery's collection has grown to around 10,000 items. One of the most interesting paintings in the gallery has an important place in the history of Gateshead and Tyneside as a whole. It is the colorful and somewhat riotous portrait of William C. Irving ofThe Blaydon Racesthat represents the characters mentioned in the famous song.
Outside the gallery is a moving memorial to Gateshead rower James Renforth, world champion rower who died in 1871.
Shipcote is the area centered on Shipcote Road north of Saltwell Park and, as well as being home to the Shipley Art Gallery, is home to the 1926 Gateshead Public Library (designed 1918), the Borough Treasurer's Department and the Gateshead Leisure Centre. Gateshead. The name of the area derives from sheepcote, which means a place of refuge for sheep.
Parque Saltwell y Torres Saltwell
Saltwell Park is one of Gateshead's gems, situated south of the city center and west of Durham Road. Its roots go back to William Wailes, an artistically gifted 19th century Newcastle grocer. Wailes became adept at designing stained glass windows which he produced in a workshop in Newcastle's Bath Lane.
It supplied churches across Britain, including St Mary's in Gateshead and St Nicholas's Cathedral in Newcastle. Through his fortune, Wailes purchased 60 acres of land in Gateshead and in 1856 built a castellated house called South Dene Towers. Now gone, the site of this house is occupied by the crematorium.
In 1871, Wailes had built a similarly eccentric, but much larger, crenellated house, with bricks of different colors producing a delightfully patterned façade.
Unfortunately, Wailes encountered financial difficulties and in 1876 sold 500 acres of his land to the Gateshead Corporation, who hired Edward Kemp to redevelop the land as a public park. Wailes continued to live in the house until his death in 1881.
The house served as a hospital during World War I and as a museum between 1933 and 1969. It was restored along with the park in 1999.
In 2005 Saltwell Park was awarded Britain's Best Park. In addition to the impressive Saltwell Towers, the park's beautiful features include the Komatsu City Friendship Garden, a Japanese-style garden built in 2009.
The garden was built by gardeners from the city of Komatsu.Birtleyin Gateshead is, of course, the home of the Japanese company Komatsu UK Ltd.
Other park features include the traditional war memorial and bandstand and a memorial to the Durham Rifle Volunteers. There is a nice boating lake, pet nook, wooded creek or dene and Saltwell's renovated barn.
One rather curious feature of the park is a public art miniature of the Tyne Bridge or at least half of Tyne Bridge, half of Gateshead of course.
Colinas Bensham y Windmill
Bensham to the north and west of Shipcote was called Benchelm in medieval times. Helm could be some kind of helmet-shaped hill or shelter, so Bensham can mean "shelter on the ledge". The ground that Bensham stands on is south of the Tyne and east of the River Team.
Bensham is notable for being home to a significant Jewish community that has lived here since 1887. It is a community of Haredi Jews originating from Eastern Europe that is noted for its strict observance. After World War II, Gateshead became the most important center for Orthodox Jewish education outside of the United States and Israel.
Despite its early industrial development, Gateshead was still little more than a large village known for its "oaks and windmills" in the 18th century. The area of Gateshead known as the Windmill Hills near Bensham is reminiscent of the windmills that were once a major feature of the Gateshead landscape.
The hills and their mills are remembered today at Windmill Hills Park, just north of Bensham Road. This was Gateshead's first public park, established in 1861. Historically, however, Windmill Hills covered a much wider area than this.
As late as 1834, Mckenzie's History of Durham recorded that the Windmill Hills were "dotted with corn-mills which, viewed from a distance, impart a vivid and picturesque effect to the landscape." It was a windy place that was once home to about ten mills, although there were other mills in various parts of the city. A mill was still standing on Carr Hill until 1964.
During the Civil War, Windmill Hills was the scene of a skirmish, prior to the 1644 Siege of Newcastle, and it was on these hills that the Scots and Parliamentarians set up the cannons that bombarded the royalist city of Newcastle across the river.
'The beautiful girl from Gateshead'
Gateshead, like Newcastle, has a rich tradition of song, some of which, likeThe Blaydon Raceshave their roots in 19th-century music halls, while others are folk songs often telling stories of Tynesidean life.
The Bonny Gateshead Lass is one such song and tells the particularly endearing story of a young man's blossoming romance for a young woman found on Gateshead High Street. The song was written by the Newcastle performer.jose wilson(1841-1875), who was also noted for the song 'Keep Yor Feet Still Geordie Hinny'. Wilson was born inCalle Stowell, Newcastle.
Oh I warned you, you didn't even see me girlWhose name I can't mention
for fear that you win and tell her hoo I like her so dee!
Well, it's just for boys and girls to whisper their affection.
The most beautiful girl in Gateshead's beautiful face has annoyed me.
Well the first time I saw her, well I thought I didn't know anything,
but surely I had seen his face before, I couldn't think of where,
Her blue eyes met mine as she passed,down the High Street in the morning,
and his look was so fascinating, that my heart was mine nee mair.
Well, I didn't see her for a week and then one night in Bridge End,
I stomped on her dress, and the puckers went away,
She told us I was clumsy and I said I'm sorry
and I humbly asked for forgiveness, I was licked for what to say.
So I walked next to him like I had the right to.
the conversation was first coy but then it turned first class.
We talked about the weather and she mentioned that her father
I was a plowman in Hawks', oh, my pretty Gateshead lass.
He confidentially mentioned that his uncle was a shopkeeper,
and his mother's cousin, his father, was a fiddler on the shore.
She spoke so nice and nice.And she looked sweet and nice
I thought that I have never seen a girl as lovely as before.
She says that her mother has a shop and sells hot cakes and sweets,
and his brother is a shoemaker in the upper part of town.
Now she was a dressmaker and we got along so well together,
that blessed to have been clumsy enough to stand on her dress.
I made her laugh and slap me with saying a bunch of nonsense.
But I bless you when you're wooingbecause nothing good will happen.
I asked her if she would be my girl and ask her out on Sunday,
to my delight she says "I could" me, the beautiful girl from Gateshead.
medieval door head
Tala the Heworth
Angel of the North, Low Fell and Birtley
team valley|Whickham y Gibside
Blaydon y Ryton
Stanley y Beamish